Turkey is distinguished by its strategic location between Asia and Europe. Turkey is surrounded by seas and Turkey is bordered by eight countries and six bodies of water. It is surrounded by water on three sides and by high mountains. It is bordered on the north by the Black Sea, Russia and Ukraine, on the south by the Mediterranean Sea, Syria and Iraq, on the west by the Aegean Sea, Bulgaria and Greece, while it is bordered on the northwest by the Marmara Sea and Russia, Ukraine and Romania, and to the east by Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran.
The Dardanelles, the Sea of Marmara, and the Bosphorus divide the country, and Turkey's area of 785,000 square kilometers is greater than the size of any European country and so is its population.
Language and religion
The Turkish language is the official language in the country, followed by the Kurdish language. 98% of the Turkish population are muslims, and the rest is distributed among other sects and religions, such as Christianity, and there is a Jewish minority.
The population of Turkey
The population of Turkey exceeded 84 million in 2020, and the percentage of the population living in city centers and districts is 92.8 percent, while the percentage of the population of towns and villages is 7.2 percent. The average life span in Turkey is about 78.4 years, which indicates the high healthcare.
Turkey ranked seventeenth in the world in terms of population, coming after Germany, and Turkey’s population represents about 1.08% of the global population, and Turkey’s population density is about 108 people per square kilometer.
There are 81 provinces in Turkey.
Istanbul: The economic capital of Turkey and one of the most important and largest cities in it, with a wonderful civilization and cultural heritage, with a population exceeding 15.5 million people in 2019.
Ankara: the political capital of the country, its population exceeded 5.5 million.
Izmir: Located in western Anatolia, it is the third most populous city in Turkey after Istanbul and Ankara, with a population of 4.3 million.
Bursa: Bursa is located in the northwest of the country, in the Marmara region, between the cities of Istanbul and Ankara, and has a population of 3 million.
Adana: With a population of 2.1 million, the city center is located on the Ceyhan River, 30 kilometers from the Mediterranean Sea in southern Anatolia.
Weather in Turkey
The seas surrounding Turkey and its geographical nature have contributed to making it a distinctive tourist destination, as the country enjoys a moderate, warm and humid weather in the summer, and its weather tends to be cold in winter, and therefore the tourism movement is active throughout the year, but rather the high rates of tourism in Turkey are increasing annually.
The mild weather reflected on nature, as most of the Turkish lands are covered with mats of green. Temperatures range from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius in the summer, from 10 to 15 degrees in the fall, and 13 to 20 degrees in the spring, while the temperature reaches zero in the winter, and in some areas it reaches -15 degrees below zero, where skiing and other winter sports are widespread.
Nature in Turkey
Turkey is a peninsula surrounded by a group of seas, while its lands are composed of plains with an average height ranging between one thousand and 1500 meters above sea level. There are many rivers and springs flowing from the middle of the plains into the seas.
Turkey has a large number of waterfalls, such as the Kursunlu Waterfall, which is one of the most beautiful waterfalls in Turkey, located 20 minutes from the city of Antalya on the Mediterranean Sea, and Manavgat Waterfalls, 75 kilometers from Antalya. Close to these waterfalls are tea gardens and shaded restaurants. It is possible to take a trip on the Manavgat River to see the water falling from the waterfalls.
There are many famous plains in Turkey, the most famous of which are the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. Turkey has been interested in constructing many tourist cities in the Toros Mountains, where country houses provide visitors and families with the opportunity to enjoy the beauty of nature and the wonderful weather.
Turkey also provides adventure lovers with a distinguished opportunity to climb mountains, explore the sea and mountain caves, and take tours on oxcarts, in addition to horseback riding, yachting, boats, diving, water skiing and fishing.
Turkey has various economic activities. Turkey depends on industry, agriculture, trade and minerals in its economy. Moreover, tourism and medical tourism sectors flourish day after day as a result of the tourism and economic boom in the country. Turkey is experiencing a state of economic progress that will drive a comprehensive growth of investment in the coming years.
Turkey's exports in 2020
Turkey recorded record numbers in the volume of exports during the past year 2020, with exports reaching $ 169.5 billion. Exports also broke a record in the last quarter of the same year, reaching a value of $ 51.2 billion, and Turkey recorded record numbers in the country's exports to 44 countries in terms of volume, led by the United States of America and South Korea.
Energy in Turkey 2020
Turkey's total oil imports in 2020 decreased by 18.4% to reach 3 million 463 thousand and 900 tons, according to the "Oil Market Sector Report" issued by the Energy Market Regulatory Authority in October 2020.
It is expected that gas discoveries during 2020 in Turkey and what will be announced later will enhance Turkey's economic strength, and hopes are pinned for more discoveries whether in the Black Sea, the Mediterranean or the Turkish mainland. 405 billion cubic meters of natural gas were discovered in the Black Sea. Meanwhile, work is underway at full speed to complete the construction of the first reactor of the "Aq Guoyo" nuclear power plant in 2023.
Tourism in Turkey
Turkey is famous as a distinguished tourist country, where worldwide visitors come to enjoy the picturesque views of waterfalls, forests, sea beaches, large markets and luxurious restaurants offering delicious food, as well as its monuments from the Byzantine period and Ottoman monuments such as large mosques.
Turkey provides tourists with a lot of recreational activities in many cities, such as zoos, quiet parks, theaters, sports and various children's games.
Art and culture
Turkey is home to many societies and civilizations since the beginning of human history. Due to the geographical location that connects Europe and Asia, the Turkish culture has developed with the influence of all these civilizations. Anatolia has also been a center of Turkish culture for hundreds of years. Because Anatolia has been the cradle of different civilizations throughout history, the cultures of these civilizations have been reflected in Turkish cuisine and social life.
Turkey invites you to learn about customs, traditions, folk dances, theater, cinema, fine arts, literature and traditional and modern music.
Education in Turkey
The education system in Turkey has developed significantly in the past ten years, both in terms of quality and quantity. Turkish government schools, equipped with the latest educational tools, are spread throughout cities and rural areas. There are also private Turkish, Arab and international schools in city centers, especially in Istanbul.
Turkish universities offer a wide range of options to foreign students. This quality is also reflected in the international classification list system. According to the BRICS Times Higher Education and Emerging Economies 2014 list, 7 Turkish universities entered the top 100 universities, and 3 of them were in the top 10. In addition, 9 Turkish universities are included in the list of the top 800 world universities by Quacquarelli Symonds in the United Kingdom. 19 Turkish universities are also in the list of the world's top 1000 universities ranked by METU Information Institute.
Turkish universities which are an integral part of the European education offer high-quality study. More Turkish universities are offering programs taught in English. These programs include medicine, engineering, humanities, business and finance.